Table 2

Microenvironmental characteristics of developmental stage-specific breast cancers


Stromal changes

Growth factors/matrix


Macrophage recruitment, inflammation, angiogenesis, adipocyte remodeling

ECM degradation, MCP-1, CSF-1, IGF, HGF, TGF beta, systemic estrogen


Aromatase, epithelial atrophy, stromal replacement, adipocyte remodeling

Local estrogen, lumican, decorin, collagen

Postmenopause with obesity

Macrophages, inflammation, angiogenesis, aromatase, reactive adipose

IGF, HGF, MCP-1, TGF beta, local and systemic estrogen

CSF-1, colony stimulating factor-1; ECM, extracellular matrix; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; MCP-1, monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1; PABC, pregnancy-associated breast cancer; TGF, transforming growth factor.

McCready et al. Breast Cancer Research 2010 12:205   doi:10.1186/bcr2578